As such, renewable energy covers:
- solar thermal and
- solar photovoltaic
- geothermal energy
- ambient energy
- tidal energy
- wave and other ocean energy
- biomass and biogas
- landfill gas, sewage treatment plant gas
In contrast to energy sourced from fossil fuels like coal, oil, and gas, which accounts (as of 2022) for 75 percent of the harmful greenhouse gas emissions that are causing climate change, energy from renewable sources is cheap, clean, sustainable, and generates more jobs.
Transitioning from fossil fuels to renewable energy in all sectors - power, heating and cooling, transportation, and industry - is key to addressing the climate crisis. To stay under 1.5°C of global warming, the world needs to immediately phase out fossil fuel use and undergo a profound transformation of the energy system through rapid electrification and sourcing energy from renewable sources.
In 2022, renewable sources provided 29 percent of global electricity. With the right investments, electricity from renewable sources could provide 65 percent of the world’s total electricity supply by 2030.
Issues and Challenges
- Nuclear energy requires radioactive ores that have finite supply and is thus not renewable. Nuclear fusion does provide (in principle) renewable energy.
- Art. 2 (1) Directive (EU) 2018/2001
- The Climate Dictionary, UNDP, 2023