Co-Origination of Loans

From Open Risk Manual


Co-Origination of Loans is a Credit Origination model described as the sharing of risks and rewards between Banks and Fintech (NBFC) firms. While a generally applicable framework, the terminology and concrete implementation refers primarily to an initiative by the Reserve Bank of India[1]

Essential Features of the Co-origination Model

  • Sharing of Risk and Rewards: Minimum 20% of the Credit Risk by way of direct Exposure shall be on NBFC's books till maturity and the balance will be on bank’s books. The NBFC shall give an undertaking to the bank that its contribution towards the loan amount is not funded out of borrowing from the co-originating bank or any other group company of the partner bank.
  • Interest Rate: The NBFC would have the flexibility to price their part of the exposure, while the bank shall price its part of the exposure in a manner found fit as per their respective Risk Appetite/ assessment of the borrower and the RBI regulations issued from time to time. However, notwithstanding the charging of a single blended/ weighted average rate of interest from the borrower, the repayment/ recovery of interest shall be shared between the bank and the NBFC in proportion to their share of credit and interest.
  • Know Your Customer (KYC): The co-originating lenders shall adhere to applicable KYC/ AML guidelines, as prescribed by Department of Banking Regulation (DBR)/ Department of Non-Banking Regulation (DNBR) and may also be guided by Para 14 of Master Directions on KYC, issued by DBR.
  • Loan Sanction: The NBFC shall recommend to the Bank proposals as found relevant for joint lending. The lenders shall be entitled to independently assess the risks and requirements of the applicant borrowers. The Loan Agreement would be tripartite in nature, wherein, both the Bank and the NBFC shall be parties as lenders to the loan agreement with the customer.
  • Common Account: The Bank and the NBFC shall open an escrow type common account for pooling respective loan contributions for disbursal as well as to appropriate loan repayments from borrowers, without holding the funds for usage of float. Regarding loan balances, the NBFC/ Bank shall maintain individual borrower’s accounts and should also be able to generate and share a single unified statement to the customer, through appropriate sharing of required information with the Bank/ NBFC.
  • Monitoring & Recovery: Both lenders shall create the framework for day to day monitoring and recovery of the loan, as mutually agreed upon.
  • Security and Charge Creation: The lenders shall arrange for creation of security and charge as per mutually agreeable terms.
  • Provisioning/Reporting Requirement: Each of the lenders shall follow its independent provisioning requirements including declaration of account as NPA, as per the regulatory guidelines respectively applicable to each of them. Each of the lenders shall carry out their respective reporting requirements including reporting to Credit Information Companies, under respectively applicable law and regulations for their portion of lending.
  • Assignment/ Change in Loan Limits: Any assignment of loans by any of the lenders can be done only with the mutual consent of both the lenders. Further, any change in loan limit of the co-originated facility can be done only with the mutual consent of both the lenders.
  • Grievance Redressal: It shall be the responsibility of the NBFC to explain to end borrower regarding the difference between products offered through the co-origination model as compared to its own products. The front-ending lender will be primarily responsible for providing the required customer service and grievance redressal to the borrower. However, any complaint registered by a borrower with the NBFC and/or bank shall also be shared with the bank/ NBFC and in case, the complaint is not resolved within 30 days, the borrower would have the option to escalate the same with concerned Banking Ombudsman/ Ombudsman for NBFCs.
  • Business Continuity Plan: Both the bank and the NBFC shall formulate a business continuity plan to ensure uninterrupted service to the borrowers till repayment of the loans under the co-origination agreement.